Credits: Markus Winkler

1AI investment in drug design and discovery increased significantly: “Drugs, Cancer, Molecular, Drug Discovery” received the greatest amount of private AI investment in 2020, with more than USD 13.8 billion, 4.5 times higher than 2019.

2 The industry shift continues: In 2019, 65% of graduating North American PhDs in AI went into the industry — up from 44.4% in 2010, highlighting the greater role industry has begun to play in AI development.

3 Generative everything: AI systems can now compose text, audio, and images to a sufficiently high standard that humans have a hard time telling the difference between synthetic…


I am studying Reinforcement Learning and truly fascinated by how an agent learns.

Basics first :) It is better to have an understanding of the terminology “Agent”, “Environment”, “State”, “Action”. They are from our daily lives.

Explainable AI(XAI) is artificial intelligence in which the results are easily understood by humans. (Wikipedia, 2021).

In the definition of Explainable AI(XAI), Machine Learning (ML) models are often called black box models because they use a set of layers, neurons and weights. All of them are just numbers and even designers cannot explain why the decision is given by AI.

In a simple linear regression model to predict the house prices, the number of parameters can be quite small like 3 such as the number of bedrooms, size in square meter and age of the building, but it can be…

When I started reading about the history of AI, I saw that most of them were inspired by neuroscience/cognition. Here are my notes on the cross-influence of two discipline.


Understanding the human brain and building human-level intelligence has been a quest since Turing. Neuroscience provides a rich source of inspiration for new types of algorithms and architectures, independent of and complementary to mathematical and logic-based methods and ideas that have largely dominated traditional approaches to AI. The most popular and today’s state of art deep learning and reinforcement learning have roots in cognition.

Deep learning in other words fully connected…

The brain/mind is the most significant intellectual quest of all time.

The best way to understand something is to find a good analogy. Humankind tries to explain the brain over thousands of years and formed six different metaphors over 2000 years. According to holy books, the first one was that humans were formed by clay and dirt and infused spirit by god. In the 3rd century, hydraulic engineering is the most intricate invention by humankind, and the brain was tried to be explained by hydraulic flows. Later, in the 1600s, “thinking” is the result of the mechanical motions of the brain. In the 1700s the brain was tried to be explained…

Baris Cekic

AI Researcher and Entrepreneur

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